The untimely demise of John Fitzgerald Kennedy has been an event of deep analysis and obsessive investigation. His death has even been used as a political tool to justify the belief systems of various individuals and groups. We’ve seen this extensively with the far-right, and its use of assassination conspiracy rhetoric to prove the existence of a “deep state” or shadow government e.g. Roger Stone. In their minds, the JFK assassination was a coup that toppled the government and proved that even the US president wasn’t untouchable. I plan to examine these theories, and determine whether there’s any truth behind them. Is the Kennedy assassination truly a product of the “deep state”, or the paranoid delusions of far-right conspiracy theorists?
Far-right JFK assassination conspiracy rhetoric is not new
One of the earliest far-right groups to discuss a conspiracy behind the Kennedy assassination was the John Birch Society. Founded by wealthy candy manufacturer Robert H. Welch in 1958, the John Birch Society was and is a right-wing anti-communist group. Mr. Welch named the society after an American airman killed by Chinese communist militants at the end of World War II. Welch believed that communists were inherently evil and omnipresent and that they were involved in a far-reaching conspiracy to rule the world. Welch was so fixated on this idea that he actually made up a quote by Lenin in order to propagate the world conquest concept. (Mulloy, p. 139)
The John Birch Society did not just believe, as Joe McCarthy did, that certain elements of the government were infiltrated by communists. They also believed that, for example, the civil rights movement was being run from Moscow. They therefore opposed Kennedy’s civil rights act which was eventually passed after his death in 1964. Their excuse for opposing the bill was that it was an example of Washington overriding the doctrine of states rights. (Mulloy, p. 110) In that regard, it may be important to note that Harry Lynde Bradley and Fred Koch were among the society’s founding members. (Mulloy, p. 9) Bradley was part of the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, and Fred Koch was the father to Charles and David Koch, who to become incredibly influential in the political field today.
Mr. Welch describes his view of the worldwide communist conspiracy in The Blue Book of the John Birch Society:
Communism, in its unmistakable present reality is wholly a conspiracy, a gigantic conspiracy to enslave mankind; an increasingly successful conspiracy controlled by determined, cunning, and utterly ruthless gangsters, willing to use any means to achieve its end. (Mulloy, p. 3).
Welch’s beliefs--which remind us a bit of George C. Scott’s General Turgidson in the film Dr. Strangelove--were major components of the John Birch Society. They seemed to be pervasive amongst its membership. And as in Dr. Strangleove, Welch preached against water fluoridation as some sort of an anti-American plot.
Revilo Oliver and the JFK Assassiantion
Therefore, it was no surprise that when Kennedy was assassinated the JBS formed a conspiracy narrative surrounding his death. In a Dec. 15, 1963 advertisement the JBS proclaimed: “We believe that the President of the United States has been murdered by a communist within the United States” (Mulloy, p. 84). This was a fair assumption, seeing as Lee Harvey Oswald was considered the perpetrator, and was a fairly well known communist in New Orleans. But their views get muddier down the line.
Welch believed that the assassination was planned by communists “high up in their hierarchy” within the U.S. (Mulloy, p. 85). Welch’s colleague, former congressman Martin Dies, disagreed with this assertion. He believed that Oswald “was acting under instructions which had their original source in Moscow” (Mulloy, p. 85). These instructions were relayed to Oswald by Fidel Castro. (Although he never had solid proof of this accusation). Another founding member of the JBS, Revilo Oliver, believed there was a “communist conspiracy” that killed the President.
Surprisingly, all three men did agree on one aspect of this large scale communist conspiracy. They believed Kennedy was assassinated to “...attack and discredit, if not destroy, anticommunist and other conservative forces within the United States, including the Birch Society” (Mulloy, p. 85). This was largely based on the prominent rightwing elements and figures in the city of Dallas, where JFK was killed. They agreed that this communist conspiracy was planning to blame “right-wing extremists” for the assassination, and this would lead to the persecution of conservatives:
Thus the mind of America was to be converted temporarily into an unreasoning mob mind, boiling over with misunderstanding, anger, and excitement. And with that springboard from which to jump, the wholesale arrests of anti-Communists was to have been carried out just as rapidly as possible. (Mulloy, p. 85).
If this sounds a bit illogical—a communist assassin causing pogroms against the right—prominent Bircher Revilo Oliver tried to elucidate it all. Oliver’s February, 1964 article Marxmanship in Dallas adds more layers to this communist takeover conspiracy. According to Mr. Oliver, Kennedy was a part of the secret communist conspiracy that assassinated him. These communists were also planning for a large-scale domestic takeover of American soil.
And if the vermin succeed in the occupation of our country, Americans will remember Kennedy while they live, and will curse him as they face the firing squads or toil in a brutish degredation that leaves no hope for anything but a speedy death. (Mulloy, p. 87).
In Welch’s Blue Book he stated that both the American and Soviet governments were being controlled by the same secret cabal of internationalists, banking interests and corrupt politicians. Someone like Armand Hammer, who did business with the Soviets from an early date, would be an example. Later on, the Rockefeller family became a prominent target of their suspicions. This was done larely through the writings of Gary Allen. Allen brought out his first three books through the publishing group Western Islands, which was owned by the John Birch Society. Allen wrote about an internationalist conspiracy executed through groups and organizations like the Council on Foreign Relations. The Birchers saw as this group’s ultimate aim a betrayal of America to a one-world socialist movement. They considered the United Nations as a stalking horse for that goal. The gradual movement would be from welfare state, to socialism and finally to communism. In Welch’s view, American liberals gave cover to this movement and were, in fact, acting as traitors. This is how President Kennedy fit into Revilo Oliver’s view of what happened on November 22, 1963.
Revilo Oliver was a professor of the classics at the Univeristy of Illinois for a number of years before joining up with Welch and publishing in his journal American Opinion. There, in February of 1964, he published a two-part article entitled Marxsmanship in Dallas. Those articles met with some notoriety and he therefore did a series of lectures based on them. (WC Volume 15, p. 732) When he was called to testify before the Warren Commission, attorney Albert Jenner seemed mainly interested in finding out his sources for the article. It turned out that Oliver was strongly plugged into the rightwing propaganda network throughout the country, and one of his sources was the infamous and notoriously unreliable reactionary pamphleter Frank Capell. (ibid, p. 724)
Robert Alan Greenberg discusses more of Revilo Oliver’s views in Enemies Within: The Culture of Conspiracy in Modern America. “The conspirators had become impatient with Kennedy when his efforts to foment domestic chaos through the civil rights movement and ‘economic collapse’ had fallen behind schedule” (Greenberg, p. 110). Oliver’s article was heavily criticized throughout the media, and even lead to boycotts against the John Birch Society. Oliver was later expelled from the Society in 1966, for exhibiting anti-semitism during a speech. (For samples of Oliver’s work, click here http://www.revilo-oliver.com/news/tag/lee-harvey-oswald/)
The JBS vs Chandler, Kennedy and Buckley
By early 1961, the John Birch Society had an estimated 60,000 to 100,000 members. It published a journal which later came to be called American Opinion and later added a magazine called Review of the News. It had a central office staff and dozens of field coordinators throughout America. (Mulloy, p. 75) One of its favorite targets was Earl Warren and the Supreme Court. The John Birch Society is sometimes credited with beginning the “Impeach Earl Warren” movement. The Bircher view was that the Brown vs. Board decision coupled with the 1957 Watkins case—which allowed suspected communists to refuse to answer questions before congress—had now given the communists a free hand to infiltrate the civil rights movement. (Mulloy, pp. 110-12)
It is important to note here that, even prior to Kennedy’s assassination, there began to occur significant splits in the conservative movement. In 1961, the newly appointed publisher of the Los Angeles Times, 32 year old Otis Chandler, decided that he was going to break with the much caricatured past of that predictably conservative daily. He began to hire reporters, sportswriters and even cartoonists away from other newspapers. He also decided to commission a five part study of the John Birch Society in southern California by reporter Gene Blake. That series was capped by a negative editorial about the organization. In fact, the editorial was rewritten by Chandler since he did not think it was hard hitting enough as a first draft. (“Otis Chandler: A Lion of Journalism” LA Times, February 28, 2006) His rewrite ended with this: “Subversion whether of the left or right is still subversion.” Richard Nixon approved of the editorial and so did Occidental College president Arthur Coons. (Pasadena Star News, August 29, 2017, “John Birch Society a Local Issue in 1961”.) In November of 1961, and perhaps not coincidentally, President Kennedy criticized both the Minutemen and the John Birch Society. (Mulloy p. 61) The founder of the Minutemen was a former Bircher, Robert DePugh. They were seen as a more militant version of Welch’s group who often had caches of arms on hand. Kennedy described these groups as “discordant voices of extremism” at work in America. He accurately described Welch as equating the Democratic Party “with the welfare state, the welfare state with socialism and socialism with communism. They object quite rightly to politics intruding on the military—but they are anxious for the military to engage in politics.” Kennedy was likely referring to the removal of General Edwin Walker from his command in Germany that year for distributing John Birch Society literature to his troops. (Mulloy, p. 43)
Just three months later, William F. Buckley also joined in the continuing fusillade against the JBS. In the pages of his magazine--the February 13, 1962 issue of National Review--he penned a polemic entitled “The Question of Robert Welch”. Buckley’s attack was really about the competition for the leadership of the Republican Party. For in The Politician, a privately distributed manuscript, Welch had called President Eisenhower and his brother Milton, communist agents. (Mulloy, pp. 15,16) Buckley did not care much for Eisenhower himself, but he understood that this kind of unfounded accusation was a real liability for the future of the GOP. As he put it: “How can the John Birch Society be an effective political instrument while it is led led by a man whose views on current affairs are, at so many critical points, so critically different from their own, and, for that matter, so far removed from common sense?” Buckley ended up winning this struggle for control of the party, as the more Welch led the John Birch Society into a web of dark forces and unfounded conpsiracy plots--the Illuminati and Adam Weishaupt--the more marginalized the Birchers became.
In November of 1964, on the eve of the smashing Barry Goldwater defeat, in the pages of Harper’s, Richard Hofstadter had written his celebrated essay, “The Paranoid Style in American Politics”. It was largely about McCarthyism and how it had influenced Robert Welch. In October of 1965, Buckley moved to eliminate the John Birch Society from the Republican Party. (Mulloy, p. 102)
Another major right-wing group that espoused assassination conspiracies was The Spotlight. The Spotlight was a weekly publication created in 1975, that was owned and operated by the Liberty Lobby. (Liberty Lobby was a far-right advocacy group created by Willis Carto, a radical right activist and Holocaust denier). Just like the JBS, Spotlight was permeated by far-right conspiracy rhetoric. “The paper endeavors to ‘get behind’ the important stories of current affairs, and often in doing so, expose the sinister machinations of conspiracies imputed to them” (Michael, p. 104). As such, it was no surprise that they presented their own conclusions of the Kennedy assassination.
In 1978, The Spotlight published an article by former CIA officer Victor Marchetti detailing his investigation into the Kennedy assassination. Marchetti accused E. Howard Hunt (the famous Watergate burglar) of being involved in the plot to kill Kennedy. Mr. Hunt then sued The Spotlight for libel, and won in 1981. The case was retried. This time with famous JFK conspiracy author Mark Lane as Liberty Lobby’s defense attorney. The retrial was a success for Lane. In 1995 the jury decided that Liberty Lobby had not committed libel. The Spotlight was ecstatic, and believed the retrial answered a lot of questions about the Kennedy assassination.
In Liberty Lobby’s 1986 book JFK: The Mystery Unraveled, they discuss all of the evidence discovered during the trial. A witness named Marita Lorenz was able to place Hunt in Dallas the day of the shooting; Hunt and Lee Harvey Oswald were said to be a part of the Bay of Pigs operation; Hunt supposedly bought guns from Lorenz and Frank Sturgis while he was in Dallas, etc. The list goes on and on. The book is filled with these types of statements, but never actually proves who killed Kennedy. “This series has not proven who killed Kennedy. But it has presented material in a form that has never been done before and it has shown you how to think about the assassination” (Liberty Lobby, p. 107).
Liberty Lobby doesn’t even say that Hunt is the killer--just that he was involved in some way. “Hunt was a mid-level operative who took orders as well as giving them. Was he brought to Dallas (something he denies) to confuse the issue?” (Liberty Lobby, p. 107). However, the book does list 16 possible suspects including Jacqueline Kennedy, Aristotle Onassis, and “political zionists”. They spend a particular amount of time discussing the Kennedys and their pro-zionist, (or in Joseph’s case “anti-zionist”) policies. They even discuss the possibility of the Zionists conspiring with other groups to kill Kennedy. “Could internationalist Zionists, perhaps in cooperation with the international ‘movers and shakers’ of the Bilderberg group and Trilateral Commission, have planned and executed not only the assassination of JFK but the cover-up as well?” (Liberty Lobby, p. 107). This shows a remarkable lack of academic insight because recently decalssified documents show that, with the exception of Jimmy Carter, President Kennedy was the most fair arbiter in the entire 70 year saga of the Arab/Israeli dispute.
The Patriot Movement
The Nineties saw an increase in far-right conspiracy rhetoric, particularly among the militia movement. The militia movement is a far-right social movement that focuses on the formation of small, antigovernment, paramilitary groups. Militias are a part of the overarching Patriot Movement, which is a large-scale far-right social movement. (Tax protesters, sovereign citizens, and Christian survivalists are also a part of the Patriot movement). Some commentators trace the origins of the movement to the JBS, and the Liberty Lobby.
According to D.J. Mulloy’s American Extremism, the ideology of militia groups is completely influenced by conspiracy theory. “The embrace of conspiracy theories by militia members is the most well-known and most thoroughly documented aspect of their ideological and rhetorical concerns” (Mulloy, p. 169). Mulloy goes on to state that the Patriot Movement itself is dominated by conspiracy theory. “The conspiracy theories that dominate Patriot propaganda all have as a central theme the notion that the U.S. government, in collusion with international powers, is intent on disarming Americans and creating a one-world government” (Mulloy, p. 169). In fact one of the member groups, the Natonal Alliance has published what many consider the battle cry book of the movement, The Turner Diaries, originally published in 1978.
One of the top conspiracy theorists of the militia movement was the late William “Bill” Cooper. Cooper was a radio host and author who Alex Jones listened to as a youth. Cooper claimed to have been a former naval intelligence officer and to have served in Vietnam. He became a conspiracy theorist in the late 1980’s. His 1991 book Behold a Pale Horse, was considered his magnum opus. It was so popular among the members of the militia movement that it sold 300,000 copes. The Guardian even proclaimed his book: “the manifesto of the militia movement” (Vulliamy and Dirks, 1997). While Cooper began as a UFO researcher, he quickly transitioned into an investigator of the “New World Order”. In Cooper’s mind, the NWO was behind almost every sinister event in human history- even the JFK assassination.
Cooper believed that President Kennedy was assassinated by Secret Service agent William Greer, as he drove Kennedy’s limo. “His assassination was ordered by the Policy Committee and the order was carried out by agents in Dallas. President John F. Kennedy was murdered by the Secret Service agent who drove his car in the motorcade and the act is plainly visible in the Zapruder film” (Cooper, p. 215). Cooper’s wild accusations didn’t just stop there. According to him, every witness that was close enough to see Greer was killed. “All of the witnesses who were close enough to the car to see William Greer shoot Kennedy were themselves all murdered within two years of the event” (Cooper, p. 215). Many will ask where is Cooper’s proof of Greer shooting Kennedy? And why would the Policy Committee (a secret subcommittee within the Bilderberg Elite Committee) order JFK’s assassination? Cooper had answers to both those questions.
According to Cooper, he bought the Greer footage from a man named John Lear in 1981. John Lear had obtained this film from a CIA acquaintance, but Cooper found out it originated from a man named Lars Hansson. “John told me that he obtained it from a CIA acquaintance whom he was not at liberty to name. I later found out the originator of that version of the Zapruder film was Lars Hansson” (Cooper, p. 216).
As for the explanation behind the Policy Committee’s decision to assassinate Kennedy; it gets very outlandish. Cooper said that the Policy Committee was ordered to kill JFK because he planned to reveal the existence of aliens to the American people. “He informed Majesty Twelve that he intended to reveal the presence of aliens to the American people within the following year, and ordered a plan developed to implement his decision” (Cooper, p. 215).
Much of Cooper’s “evidence” was completely disproved by Jim Marrs in the 2013 edition of Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy. Marrs explains the origins of Mr. Hansson’s copy of the Zapruder film, and notes that it is a defective copy. “...Lars Hanson of California, who upon viewing a bad fourth-or fifth-generation copy of the Zapruder film, speculated that the driver turned and shot Kennedy” (Marrs, p. 229). Marrs also discusses how Cooper was warned of his copy’s inauthenticity, yet still continued to assert that it was real. “Upon careful inspection of the film and further reflection, Hansson denounced his own theory but this did not stop Cooper from selling bad copies (some so bad there was no color) of the Zapruder film and continuing to assert the driver had shot JFK even though Hanson and several other JFK researchers, this author included, warned him it was a false claim” (Marrs, 229). As for Cooper’s Policy Committee theory, it’s debunked by the fact that he gave no sources whatsoever to prove the existence of the Committee. He blatantly says it happened, with no evidence or proof to back it up.
Cooper’s life came to a close in 2001. He died in a hail of gunfire from local deputies, and he remains a martyr for the Patriot movement. Cooper’s JFK theory was used to connect the nebulous tendrils of the “New World Order”, and to show that there are people so powerful they can murder a President and get away with it. The NWO and shadow governments were (and still are) a fixture of the Patriot movement, and JFK’s death stands a testament to their power.
JFK conspiracy rhetoric in modern political discourse
Conspiracism seems to be a regular aspect of American political discourse. Going back to the 19th century, movements such as the anti-Masonic party and the Know-Nothing movement propagated mass conspiracies against both Catholics and freemasons. This conspiracy-minded sentiment still exists today, and still ties into the JFK assassination.
A 1963 Gallup poll showed that 52 percent of Americans believed that there was a “conspiracy” involved in JFK’s death (Swift, 2013). By 1973 the number had “swelled to 81%” (Swift 2013) A 2013 poll by The Washington Post showed that 6 out of 10 (60%) believed there was a plot to kill Kennedy. And a 2017 NBC poll released around the time of the JFK document release, said “more than 60 percent of people believe Lee Harvey Oswald did not act alone” (Chinni 2013). It’s obvious from these figures that JFK’s death still resonates with the American people, and the majority of those polled believe he was killed via a conspiracy of some kind.
The October 2017 release of JFK documents by the Trump administration brought new life back into the world of JFK conspiracism. (And just conspiracism in general). Mainstream and alternative news outlets alike were pouring through thousands of files to give their readers a summary of these documents. Websites such as Who.What.Why even hired volunteer researchers to help them catalogue and analyze thousands of government documents.
The fact that the Trump administration decided to release these documents is quite interesting considering the far-right fascination with President Trump. To the far-right they both face a common enemy: the Deep State. JFK was assassinated by a deep state conspiracy, and Trump is being subverted by deep state forces. We can see this with the popularity of the Seth Rich conspiracy, Pizzagate, and QAnon.
In many of these narratives liberal politicians are a part of a secretive shadow government that, behind the scenes, causes tragedies. The Clintons killed Seth Rich to silence him, the Democratic establishment sex trafficked children, and according to QAnon, Trump is waging a secret war against the deep state. These narratives should sound familiar to any Kennedy assassination researcher. JFK was killed to silence him, the conservative establishment staged a coup against him, and JFK was killed because he was waging an all out war against the Mafia and the national security state. Conspiracy rhetoric rarely seems to change, even in a modern political context. Especially, when this narrative is being formed on the far-right.
Is the far-right correct? Does the deep state really exist?
To answer the question of whether there’s really a deep state, I must first define the phrase “deep state”. Time magazine reporter Alana Abramson discussed the origins of the term. “The term, which emerged toward the end of the 20th century, was originally used to describe a shadow government in Turkey that disseminated propaganda and engaged in violence to undermine the governing party.” (Abramson 2017).
As Abramson said, the “deep state” is a secretive section of the government, one that operates with impunity and usually engages in illegal actions to accomplish some sort of political goal. This concept is almost interchangeable with the term “shadow government”, as both describe a hidden government behind the guise of the public government. The only difference is that members of a shadow government are generally supposed to be unelected officials. (Businessmen, clergymen, financial leaders, etc.)
But the question at hand is whether or not the far-right version of the deep state exists, and whether Kennedy was killed by the deep state. To answer that, we must look at some of the evidence that has come to light over the years. We will look at the most important details, as it will be difficult to discuss every single clue that has been found by researchers over the years. (I’m not Jim Marrs or Vincent Bugliosi, so I’m not going to write an magnum opus of JFK research).
To start off, there were two investigative commissions, each came to different conclusions. The Warren Commission states: “10. In its entire investigation the Commission has found no evidence of conspiracy, subversion, or disloyalty to the U.S. Government by any Federal, State, or local official. 11. On the basis of the evidence before the Commission it concludes that Oswald acted alone” (United States 22). The HSCA states: “The Committee believes, on the basis of the evidence available to it, that John F. Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. The Committee is unable to identify the other gunman or the extent of the conspiracy” (United States 6).
According to a 2015 article by Politico, John McCone (the CIA director in 1963) hid evidence from the Warren Commission. “McCone and other senior CIA officials were ‘complicit’ in keeping ‘incendiary’ information from the Warren Commission” (Shenon, 2015). McCone specifically withheld information about the CIA’s plots to kill Castro, which would have allowed the Committee to ask questions about Oswald’s involvement in these groups.
The CIA also withheld (until November 2017) 676 records that detailed Oswald’s visit to the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City. According to The Washington Post, one of these files details a conversation between Oswald and a KGB operative. “...a CIA cable about Oswald’s contacts in Mexico City that had up until Friday been partially redacted. The Oct. 8, 1963 cable discussed Oswald’s interactions with a Soviet consular official named Valery Kostikov, the reputed head of the KGB’s assassinations operations.” (Shapira, Miller 2017). But what makes this even more interesting is that in the declassified Lopez Report, it is revealed that the voice on these calls is not Oswald.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover later wrote on the marginalia of a memo that he did not trust the CIA anymore because of the snowjob they had given him about Oswald being in Meixco City. He also supposedly said: “The thing I am concerned about is having something issued so that we can convince the public that Oswald is the real assassin” (BBC News 2017). In addition, an FBI memo details how the Dallas PD was warned about possible attempts against Oswald’s life. Hoover said: “We at once notified the chief of police and he assured us Oswald would be given sufficient protection. However, this was not done” (BBC News 2017).
According to The Guardian, Charles Thomas (a diplomat who worked at the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City), repeatedly attempted to reopen an investigation into Oswald’s Mexico trip. “Previously declassified records referring to Thomas show that he was repeatedly rebuffed when trying to reopen an investigation of Oswald’s Mexico trip” (Shennon 2018). In 1969, Thomas was denied a promotion and removed from his post in Mexico City. In 1971, he committed suicide.
And for my final fact, I will use some of the original evidence from the Warren Commission. The Warren Commission report describes the discovery of the single bullet, or the so-called “magic bullet”. In the report it states: “...Darrell C. Tomlinson, the hospital’s senior engineer, removed this stretcher from the elevator and placed it in the corridor on the ground floor, alongside another stretcher wholly unconnected to the care of Governor Connally. A few minutes later, he bumped one of the stretchers against the wall and a bullet rolled out” (United States 81). The report goes on to say: “Although Tomlinson was not certain whether the bullet came from the Connally stretcher or the adjacent one, the Commission has concluded that the bullet came from the Governor’s stretcher” (United States 81). Numerous questions should come to mind from reading these quotes. How did the Commission conclude that this bullet came from Connally’s stretcher when Tomlinson is unsure which stretcher it came out of? Why does the report not mention any blood or deformities found on the surface of this bullet? (One would think the bullet that penetrated two men would have some sort of blood evidence on it).
In conclusion, I can not conclusively state that JFK was assassinated by the “deep state”. Nor can I say that the far-right version of the deep state exists. What I can say, is that the government has lied and covered up numerous details surrounding Kennedy’s death. I can also agree that the in certain moments, the U.S. government operates like a deep state. I think many of the far-right assassination conspiracies I’ve discovered are preposterous, and don’t mesh well with the evidence that’s been uncovered by the ARRB and the top resarchers. I think the evidence does point to a coverup, but the reasoning behind this coverup is still a mystery.
- Abramson, Alana. “Donald Trump and the Deep State: What's the Deep State?” Time, Time, 8 Mar. 2017, time.com/4692178/donald-trump-deep-state-breitbart-barack-obama/.
- Bump, Philip. “The Kennedy Assassination Is a Rarity These Days: A Bipartisan Conspiracy Theory.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 26 Oct. 2017,
- Chinni, Dante. “The One Thing All Americans Agree on? JFK Assassination Conspiracy.” NBCNews.com, NBCUniversal News Group, .
- Cooper, Milton William, and Joanna Heikens. "Behold a Pale Horse". Light Technology Pub, 1991.
- Goldberg, Robert Alan. Enemies Within : The Culture of Conspiracy in Modern America. Yale University, 2001
- “JFK Files: FBI Anxious to 'Convince Public' about Oswald.” BBC News, BBC, 28 Oct. 2017, .
- JFK: the Mystery Unraveled. Liberty Lobby, 1986.
- Marrs, Jim. Crossfire : The Plot That Killed Kennedy. Revised and updated ed., Basic Books, 2013.
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- Shapira, Ian, and Michael E. Miller. “New Batch of JFK Assassination Files: Oswald in Mexico City and the Watergate Burglars.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 4 Nov. 2017,.
- Shenon, Philip. “JFK Documents Could Show the Truth about a Diplomat's Death 47 Years Ago.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 22 Apr. 2018, .
- Shenon, Philip. “Yes, the CIA Director Was Part of the JFK Assassination Cover-Up.” POLITICO, POLITICO, 6 Oct. 2015, .
- Swift, Art. “Majority in U.S. Still Believe JFK Killed in a Conspiracy.” Gallup.com, 15 Nov. 2013, news.gallup.com/poll/165893/majority-believe-jfk-killed-conspiracy.aspx.
- United States. Congress. House. Select Committee on Assassinations. Final Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations, U.s. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session : Summary of Findings and Recommendations. U.S. Govt. Print. Off, 1979.
- United States. Warren Commission. The Warren Commission Report : Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. St. Martin's Press, 1992.
- Vulliamy, Ed, and Bruce Dirks. “New Trial May Solve Riddle of Oklahoma Bombing.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 3 Nov. 1997, www.theguardian.com/world/1997/nov/03/mcveigh.usa.